Distillation Equipment

What Equipment is Used in Distillation

Fractional Distillation, also known as Fractionation, is the technique of separating volatile components with different boiling points in a mixture into different parts, which is used for the purification of chemicals or the separation of mixtures in order to obtain some certain components. Without new material produced in the process, Fractional Distillation merely separates mixtures which is regarded as a physical change.

Equipment Required for Fractional Distillation

Giving consideration to the above factors, the Short-Path Distillation can be used for Fractional Distillation. The Short-Path Distillation usually consists of a vacuum pump, a chiller, and the distillation part.

The working process of the Short-Path Distillation can be described as follows:

The material should be added from the top of the evaporator and continuously spread to the heating surface through the material covered on the rotor. Then, the scratch film is capable of scratching the material into a thin and flowing liquid film. During this process, the light molecular exceeded the heating surface form the condense liquid on inside condenser without any collision. Then, the molecular flows along the condenser tube, and discharges through the discharge tube on the bottom of the evaporator. The residue liquid (heavy molecule) is collected on the circular channel under the heating zone, and flows through the discharge tube on one side.

Simple Distillation VS. Fractional Distillation

Actually, Fractional Distillation can be regarded as multiple distillations. But there are several differences between them, which can be concluded as follows:

1. Different Purposes

Fractional Distillation is often used to separate components with small boiling point differences, while simple distillation is usually used to separate components with large boiling point difference as well as separate liquids from solid impurities.

2. Different Pros and Cons

Fractional Distillation can purify liquids containing several different components better even though there are small boiling point differences. But it requires more energy, slower and more complex than Simple Distillation. So on the other hand, Simple Distillation is faster and simpler, requiring less energy. But it can only be used for the separation of relatively pure liquids and there should be a large boiling point differences between components. In conclusion, there are various pros and cons between Fractional Distillation and Simple Distillation.

Short Path Distillation

The pressure difference between the boiling film and condensing surface is the driving force of the stem flow, and the minimum pressure will cause the flowing of steam. Under the 1mbar, the operation requires that there is the shortest distance between the boiling surface and condensing surface. The evaporator manufactured based on the principle is known as the short-path distillation. The short-path distillation (molecular distillation) is equipped with a inside condenser which is opposite to the heating surface, and make the operation pressure reduce to under 0.001mbar. Its relative low boiling temperature is very suitable for the material with heat sensitive and high boiling point.

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Molecular Distillation Equipment

Molecular distillation is also called short path molecular distillation, which is a distillation method under high vacuum. The average free path of the vapor molecules is greater than the distance between the evaporation surface and the condensation surface, so that the difference in evaporation rate of each component in the liquid can be used. Molecular distillation is to separate the mixtures of liquids.

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