What is the Working Principle of a Centrifuge?

What is a Centrifuge?

A centrifuge is a device that can separate substances from the mixtures. It can be used to extract CBD from cannabis plant by ethanol, which is high efficient and more and more well received. It is initially used for separating the compositions of milk, and now expands into the scientific, medical and other fields. It is a extremely popular and effective solid-liquid extraction technique, and widely used in many fields, such as the chemical engineering, petroleum, food processing, pharmaceutical, mineral processing, carbon, water treatment, nuclear energy industry and shipbuilding, and other fields.

Industrial Centrifuge

What is the Working Principle of a Centrifuge?

A centrifuge utilizes the centrifugal force to separate liquid and solid particles or components of a liquid mixture. The centrifuge has a cylinder(drum) that rotates at a high speed, which is usually driven by an electric motor. After the suspension (or emulsion) is added to the drum, it is rapidly driven to rotate at the same speed as the drum, and the components within the mixtures are separated under the function of the centrifugal force and discharged separately. Generally, the higher the drum speed is, the better the separation will be. When the suspension containing fine particles is left still, the suspended particles gradually sink due to the action of the gravitational field. The heavier the particles are, the faster they sink.

What is the Process of Centrifugation?

In the process of centrifugation, the materials get rotated powered by the centrifugal power and substances within the materials will have different acceleration speeds, which means substances will get different movement trails. Under the same centrifugal power, different kinds of substances have different sedimentation coefficient. Therefore, some kinds of substances get moved outward. What’s more, different coefficients means substances fall at different time. And that is the process of centrifugation and how different kinds of substances get separated.

 How does a Centrifuge Work?

The powerful centrifugal force generated by the high-speed rotation of the centrifuge rotor accelerates the sedimentation speed of the particles in the liquid, and separates the substances with different sedimentation coefficients and buoyancy density in the sample.

When the suspension containing fine particles is standing still, the suspended particles gradually sink due to the action of the gravity field. The heavier the particles are, the faster they sink, otherwise particles with a lower density than the liquid will float up.

Industrial Centrifuge

What are Different Types of Centrifuges?

Based on different classification standards, centrifuges can be classified into different types, as follows:

  1. In terms of the separation methods, industrial centrifuges can be classified into the decanter centrifuge and the filter centrifuge.
  2. According to the various structures, there’re five kinds of industrial centrifuges, which are the plate centrifuge, the three-foot centrifuge, the tubular centrifuge, the disc centrifuge and the horizontal screw decater centrifuge.
  3. Based on the unloading ways, industrial centrifuges can be classified into the upper discharge centrifuge, the lower discharge centrifuge and the screw discharge centrifuge.
  4. Considering the production capacity, industrial centrifuges can be classified into the small centrifuge and the large centrifuge.
  5. In terms of the purposes, industrial centrifuges can be classified into the biological centrifuge, the pharmaceutical centrifuge, the chemical centrifuge and other centrifuges.

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